Tiny Java Web Server and Servlet Container

aka Miniature JWS

European quality software made in USA

(with Android SSL support)

Truth is ever to be found in simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and confusion of things.

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  1. Introduction
  2. Features
  3. History
  4. Competitors
  5. Design
  6. Configuration
  7. J2EE deployment
  8. App server services (JNDI, DataSource)
  9. Embedded usage
  10. Embeddable application
  11. Mobile and appliance usage
  12. Virtual hosting configuration
  13. Proxied usage
  14. Download
  15. Build
  16. Applications
  17. VM
  18. Support
  19. Versions
  20. Copyright
  21. Contact
Construction zone

Introduction

The Miniature Java Web Server is built as a servlet container with HTTPD servlet providing standard Web server functionality. The server is pretty small as in Java code as in result byte code. General purpose of the Web server is running and debugging servlets. However, it can be used as a regular web server for sites with low to medium load. I found also very convenient shipping a servlet based product packaging with the server, so a user can start a product just after unwrapping. You can try a web site hosted on this server on Amazon EC2. This web server also works on PDA and smart phones as Android and Blackberry based, or on Windows CE based when JVM installed. It gives additional flexibility for your phone, since using WebFolder (WebBee web app) can simplify file synchronization and provide control of your phone from web.

Testimonies

Using tjws with WebServices as a "RMI"/RPC protocol, and with HTTPS on
top, this is gold! Thanks!

I've downloaded TJWS and it looks like exactly what I’ve been looking for to use as a local web server to generate a web application.

I'm using the miniature java webserver on
my zaurus.
I wrote a few servlets for it and I'm very happy with how it performs.

TJWS was the only thing out there I found I could use as a library, programmatically within unit tests. Thanks for a great library.

Features and Benefits

  • About 100Kb footprint (TJWS is the smallest one, like 5 times less than competitors LWS and Jetty, more than twice less than Winstone)
  • Very fast and reliable, it performs better than some C/C++ based web servers, 10% faster than Apache 2.x
  • Can scale to thousands connections, clustering configuration is about of development
  • A perfect solution for web interfaced applications
  • Standard J2EE servlet deployment for .war packaged applications
  • Simple configuration, no hundreds of config parameters
  • Flexible JSP support
  • Limited JSS 3.0 support (JSR 315)
  • Built for Java 7 with intelligent downgraded support for Java 2
  • Runs on Android and Blackberry platforms out of the box

History

I was looking for a web server with sources to debug some servlets at the end of 1998. One of my findings was ACME Java Web Server. It was pretty good, but supported only JSS 1.x and JDK 1.02. Since my servlets required a bit more, I have added support for contemporary versions of JDK and JSDK. I just continued adding more features and providing bug fixes after. The current version is mostly compatible with the latest servlet container specification (3.0).

Competitors

Main competitors for TJWS are Winstone, LWS, and Jetty. TJWS can successfully compete with more established and reputable servers as Tomcat and JBOSS. Main benefits of TJWS are simplicity and tiny footprint.

Design

Modular design is used for TJWS. It gives a flexibility of creation different configurations with exactly required features. A heart of TJWS is a light weight servlet container. A set of predefined servlets extends functionality of the container transferring it to a web server or/and an application server. Predefined servlets can be eliminated or redefined for extra flexibility.

Selecting or not J2EE deployment gives an extra flexibility in a final size of a deployed application. Like for an embeddable or a mobile application is possible to use Java Personal Profile 1.x compatible servlet container module. For less critical in size deployment is possible to use J2EE deployment module and JSP module. Originally provided GNU JSP providers have been withdrawn from latest TJWS version for keeping pure BSD license, however GNU JSP providers can be reached in previous versions. I do not support them anyway. Only Jasper is currently supported as JSP provider. However I separate it to avoid any licensing issues. Base module, and J2EE deployment modules have sizes 100K, and 72K correspondingly. Jasper's size is about 580K. (I am still looking for help to separate Jasper on runtime and JSP parsing and compilation parts, it could be beneficial for Android deployment.) App server services module adds 46Kb.

Configuration

Most of server configuration is based on command line arguments. The arguments can be processed from a file as well. Additional configuration values can be provided over files. J2EE deployed application are configured based on standard web.xml deployment descriptor.

Command line parameters

All command line parameters start with '-' (dash) and most of them have a following value part. Here they are:

p specifies port number served by TJWS, default value is 80 for non secure and 443 for secure configuration, for example -p 8080
t specifies name of throttles definition file. It allows to reduce speed accessing to particular files and improve overall performance of a server. An example of this file can look like:

# throttle file for tjws.sourceforge.net
*               100000  # limit total web usage to 2/3 of our T1
*.jpg|*.gif     50000   # limit images to 1/3 of our T1
*.mpg           20000   # and movies to even less
mediachest/*    20000   # MediaChest's pages are too popular
s specifies servlet properties file in old Sun's legacy form. An example of this file can look like:
servlet./app-bin/tree/*.code=rogatkin.servlet.Dispatcher
servlet./app-bin/tree/*.initArgs=properties=src\javaarchitect\servlet\treeview.properties
servlet./app-bin/chat/*.code=rogatkin.chatservlet.ChatServlet
servlet./app-bin/chat/*.initArgs=properties=C:\\Projects\\ChatServlet\\chatservlet.properties
servlet./app-bin/lunch.code=javaarchitect.servlet.mishka.Friday
servlet./app-bin/lunch.initArgs=properties=src\javaarchitect\servlet\mishka.properties
Here servlet. is just keyword. Next part is servlet URL mapping and servlet name at the same time. Mapping notation was changed since 1.93 to match servlet specification, so /* should be added to old notation. Next part is dot (.) separator of servlet class name, when code used, or init arguments comma separated name=value pairs when initArgs is used.
r specifies realm file. A format of this file looks like:
realmname=path,user:password
Path has similar notation as servlet mapping URL.
a specifies aliases definition file. Every line of the file specifies one alias entry starting from keyword from=webpath;dir=directory_in_filesysten_to_map, for example:
from=/;dir=src\javaarchitect\servlet\tree\resource
from=/pool;dir=data
b bind address, if your machine has several IP addresses, then you can specify which one to use
k backlog size, by default 50, but can't be less than 2
nohup server doesn't expect any terminal window, can be only killed to stop
c specifies web path of CGI scripts directory
e provides session timeout in minutes and can be negative. Negative value won't start session cleaning thread and will use a persistent session cookie
m limits max number of active sessions by a specified value, can't be less than 10. Default value is no limitation
l[ar][f format_string] specifies to log accesses with optionally logged user-agent and referer HTTP headers. When f modifier specified a format string has to follow which is a valid format string for java.text.MessageFormat class. Positions of parameters are:
  1. IP
  2. RFC 1413 identity
  3. Remote user
  4. Timestamp
  5. Request method
  6. Request Resource
  7. Request Protocol
  8. Result code
  9. Bytes transferred to client
  10. Local port
  11. Referer (if requested)
  12. User agent (if requested)
g requests rolling log file after reaching parameter specified line numbers. Can't be made less than 1000, and no rolling used if not specified or parameter is 0. Since 1.102
w provides web app deployer class name, by default used rogatkin.web.WarRoller
j JSP servlet class, org.gjt.jsp.JSPServlet is default; extra init parameters can be specified for JSP servlet; syntax of parameters is -class_name_perfix.param_name param_value; note that value can contain variables like %context% and %deploydir% substituted by actual values respectfully. Another substitution happens for %classloader% by a name of a servlet context attribute keeping an instance of a class loader used for a web application deployment (available from version 1.15). Version 1.22 and above introduced another variable %classpath% which substituted by class path used for loading servlet
nka no keep alive (server uses keep-alive by default)
kat keep alive timeout interval in seconds, default is 30
mka max number of a connection use in keep-alive
sh HTTP only attribute for session cookie. Can improve sequrity. Session cookie doesn't carry this attribute by default. Since 1.90
ss Secure only attribute for session cookie. Can improve sequrity. Session cookie doesn't carry this attribute by default. Since 1.99
sp persistence for sessions, TJWS is capable storing sessions data in a portable format and reload them between restarts or nodes of a cluster. Do not use this option if sessions contain sensitive, not serializable, or bulky data
err allows to use own or standard error print stream. If there is no following parameter class name then used System.err as error print stream. If a parameter specified, then it's considered as a class name compatible for assignment to PrintStream. Such class will be instantiated and used for error redirection
out allows to define own class which will handle log needs. This class has to be assignment compatible with PrintStream. An attempt of instantiation of the class with default constructor happens at TJWS startup, so the class has to be available in startup class path. This class will handle err stream too unless -err option is specified. TJWS includes class Acme.Utils$DummyPrintStream for disabling any log printing. (since 1.26)
d Log file directory for default logging, System.getProperty("user.dir") is used by default (since 1.30)
z defines max number of created threads in a thread pool used for servicing requests. 20 used when the parameter not defined. 0 or negative - do not use thread pool
socketFactory specifies class name of socket factory and used for setting a secure connection. (deprecated since 1.30)

It accepts also any freely specified options in form -option_name option_value. Such options passed without checking to a custom server socket factory implementation and other modules of the server

acceptorImpl specifies a class name of a concerete Acceptor implementation. Default is Acme.Serve.SimpleAcceptor (since 1.31). See note above about processing additional connection parameters. Since 1.30
dataSource specifies a data source properties file location. Supported by rogatkin.app.Main run module. Since 1.30
This option is valid only for app server runner (class rogatkin.app.Main)
TJWS .war deployer can process also context.xml file supplied in META-INF directory of application .war for same purpose. Since 1.98. A property file can contain the following properties:
  • jndi-name (required) - under this name the data source will be registered in JNDI if name starts with jdbc, then prefix java:comp/env/ will be added when registered in JNDI.
  • driver-class - class name of JDBC driver
  • url - JDBC connection URL
  • user - connection user
  • password - connection password
  • pool-size - max number of allocated connections, 0 = no size limitation, -1 = no pool used
  • access-timeout - timeout in ms before getting an exception on connection request when no connections are available, 0 means wait forever
  • driver-class-path - defines class path to a driver archive and/or a connection validator class, unless they are already defined  in a boot classpath
  • prob-query - a query to run against a given connection to verify a validity, There are two predefined values IsValid and isClosed used for calling corresponding methods of JDBC connection instead of a query. Note that isValid() method is available in JDBC 3.
  • exception-handler- a class with static public boolean method validate and two parameters of type SQLException, and Connection returning false when the connection has to be discarded after the SQLException
Here is a quick map between properties names and context.xml Resource tag attributes:
jndi-namename
driver-classdriverClassName
urlurl
userusername
passwordpassword
pool-sizemaxActive
driver-class-pathdriverClassPath
prob-queryvalidationQuery

TJWS processes several Java System level definitions in addition to command line arguments specified as JVM's -D arguments:

tjws.serve.log.encoding - this definition specifies encoding used for log messages, it can be very convenient to debug multi lingual web applications.

tjws.proxy.ssl - this definition specifies that server should process X-Forwarded-xxxx headers for calculation remote and server addresses. If value of the property 'y', then SSL is considered to be handled by proxy server. (Since 1.71)

java.protocol.handler.pkgs - this definition is used by SSL socket factories implementations to define a different protocol handler packages, than standard com.sun.net.ssl.internal.www.protocol

The following definitions are used by J2EE servlet/deployer module:

tjws.webappdir - specifies path to web application war files location for automatic deployment. By default TJWS_ROOT/webapps directory is used.

tjws.webclassloader - specifies custom class loader class name used for loading classes from war file. The class loader must to have constructor accepting parameters as URL[] and ClassLoader. Since 1.83

tjws.wardeploy.warname-as-context - see details below.

tjws.wardeploy.as-root[.virtual_host_name] - defines context name/war name used for deploying in root, e.g. -Dtjws.wardeploy.as-root=<app_context/war_name> If virtual host name part is presented, then it defines a fully qualified host name for which the root context is set. (Since 1.71)

tjws.virtual - defines deployment of web applications in virtual hosting environment.

When the definition is specified, TJWS J2EE web applications deployer looks in all subdirectories under automatic web application deployment directory and considers directory name as virtual host name and directory content as automatic web application deployment directory for corresponding virtual host.

For example:

           TJWS_ROOT/webapps
               www.travelspal.com
                   travelspal.war
                   webfolder.war
               www.7bee.org
                   sqlfair.war
                   webchat.war
               xumster.war
               jaddressbook.war


(Since 1.71)

class_name.debug - this definition is passed to JSP provider for allowing debug specified class name.

tjws.fileservlet.usecompression - this definition advises to compress text content response when a client can accept it. To make this suggestion per application, use tjws.webapp.<context_name>.compressresponse Since 1.31

tjws.fileservlet.suppressindex this definition advises the file servlet to do not show content of a directory when an index file can't be found. Since 1.96

tjws.wardeploy.dynamically - this definition advises J2EE deployer for monitoring .war files updates and redeploy corresponding applications without the server restart. Optional value of this definition specifies time interval in seconds between checkings. Since 1.50

tjws.wardeploy.noincremental - instructs TJWS redeploy entire web application when newer version of .war detected. Default is incremental deployment overriding only older files and not touching added. Since 1.93

tjws.webapp.context name.init.timeout - specifies init timeout in seconds of corresponding web application by context name, use * if you need to define it for all contexts

tjws.webapp.context name.threadpoolsets - specifies core, max threads, and queue size a thread pool of corresponding web application by context name, use * if you need to define it for all contexts. Since 1.80

tjws.webapp.debug - value yes turns on additional debug print outs for J2EE deployed apps

tjws.app.orb.arguments - this definition can provide comma separated parameters used for ORB initialization. Since 1.50

tjws.app.main - name of main class started with offering app server services. TJWS supports not only web applications, any desktop Java application can get benefist of app server services as JNDI and container managed JDBC connections. Since 1.50

tjws.app.main.classpath - class path for main application class specified as definition tjws.app.main, unless the main class can be resolved from boot class path. Since 1.50

tjws.app.main.striprightparam - specifies a position in command line arguments which have to be not passed to a main class defined in tjws.app.main. It gives flexibility of separate command line arguments used by launched application and app server services itself. Since 1.50

tjws.app.main.stripleftparam specifies a position to cut from left. See description of tjws.app.main.striprightparam. Since 1.50

Since TJWS has a long history it supports as a legacy way of deployment and configuration of servlets as a new .war based. The legacy deployment uses property files, like servlets.properties and aliases.properties. J2EE way is based on .war and config.xml files. When a legacy way used, the server can keep a minimal configuration and run on JDK version started from 1.2 (Actually the current version has 9 JDK 1.4 dependencies which can be easily corrected if JDK 1.2 is a real requirement).

Security

Security becomes more important nowadays, so I decided to add SSL support to TJWS. Thanks JSSE for making that fairly easy. Here some tips how to install SSL support to the server.

There are two SSL supporting socket factories packaged with TJWS - Acme.Serve.SSLServerSocketFactory and rogatkin.web.DoubleHeadSocketFactory (available from v 1.17). First is recommended to use with core TJWS, when second with J2EE deployment module since it provides supporting http and https at the same time and requires Java 5. 7Bee script contains examples of usage both factories. To use first one type bee -Dsecure=true and for second bee -Ddoublehead=true. Additional command line parameters can be specified with each factory like :

  1. algorithm - encryption algorithm, SUNX509 when not specified
  2. clientAuth - requires client authorization, false when not specified
  3. keystoreFile - key store file path, user_home/.keystore by default
  4. keystorePass - key store password, empty string when not specified
  5. keystoreType - type of key store, Oracle's JKS when not specified
  6. protocol - secure protocol, TLS when not specified
  7. backlog - backlog value, 1000 by default
  8. ifAddress - bind to specified address
  9. port - bind to specified port
  10. ssl-port  SSL port (only for DoubleHeadSocketFactory and rogatkin.web.DualSocketAcceptor )
  11. ssl-backlog backlog size (only for DoubleHeadSocketFactory and rogatkin.web.DualSocketAcceptor)

Note that some secure socket options will override options specified in a regular way.

You may also adding your own socket factory implementations. See the packaged socket factories as a reference implementation.

Starting from 1.30 Socket Factory concept was replaced by Acceptor. It allowed to use Selector based processing requests with 10% improved performance. Four concrete Acceptor implementations are available:

The author appreciates if you can share own implementations of Acceptor.

J2EE deployment

For J2EE deployment you need to make sure that war.jar is specified in classpath when you start the server. It will create webapps directory (configured location) where you can put your .war files for auto deployment. Deployment gets updated at startup absorbing any changes from source .war file, however all changes done in target deployment directory are preserved. TJWS can monitor also source .war changes during runtime when tjws.wardeploy.dynamically is specified, and redeploy application if changes were detected. server.xml isn't supported and most of server specific parameters have to be specified as command line arguments, or stored in a flat file as cmdparams. All examples of startup scripts are presented in directory bin of a distributive archive. Most of examples contain both ways of server configuration and application deployment. Note that deployment descriptor (web.xml) parameter display-name defines a context path of a deployed web application. If you want to have context path matching to .war name then add system property tjws.wardeploy.warname-as-context set to yes. For command line it will look like -Dtjws.wardeploy.warname-as-context=yes . (Since 1.24) To prevent application update at startup time you need to remove corresponding .war from deployment directory. It gives also a way to deploy web applications without .war just manually create web app directory structure. Check section 'Embeddable application' for more options of deployment and distribution of applications.

Supported web.xml deployment tags are:

App server services

TJWS includes app server services module. It takes some usable shape from version 1.50. There are two services offered:

For using these services app.jar has to be in class path, or/and used for starting the server. The bin directory includes an example of starting TJWS with app server services on. Data sources get configured from properties files specified as –dataSource command line option. JNDI properties as context factory and JNDI URL get pre-populated as rogatkin.app.SimpleJndi and http://localhost:1221 correspondingly, unless they are defined as system properties. JNDI is capable to register local and CORBA objects. First running JNDI takes care of JNDI master repository, and all following JNDI starts will be registered in the master repository. If the master repository's gone, then all clients won’t be capable to register own CORBA objects or access them, until the repository is back. There is no persistence for stored references, so you should do a defended programming and reregister references in case of crashing the master repository.

context.xml

Data source definition can be specified in context.xml placed under META-INF directory of .war structure. (since 1.98)

3.0 Deployment descriptor

Multiple URL patterns can be defined anywhere. Some other features are under consideration. Work on processing annotations in a servlet code started. Async and multi part features are supported.

Jasper JSP provider integration

You can use Jasper JSP provider for servicing JSP pages inside an application. Since the original Jasper is a bit bulky for TJWS taste, it's recommended to strip it to a manageable size. TJWS distribution includes instructions how to modify, build, and connect Jasper in jasper.html of webroot directory Jasper of respectful Tomcat versions 5.x, 6.x (since 1.28), and 7.x (since 1.83) is supported.

Running it as a service on all Windows platforms

You can run the server of the version (>1.42/1.7) as Windows service. File servservice.exe added to the distribution. I wrote this service for JDK 1.4. It works without a change for Java 5 and 6. C source code of service implementation is included. A service starter considers that all TJWS files reside in the same directory specified at installation of the service. .jar files can be in sub directory lib. Command line parameters have to be specified in cmdparams file. Use -nohup switch to avoid a console read attempt. To get help line, run servservice.exe -help. Parameterless version of servservice.exe is considered as a service.

Note that arg[0] which supposes to give a fully qualified name of a service executable on some versions Windows ((like XP) doesn't do that. For this reason you have to specify a fully qualified path as the last parameter of an installation command. There is no requirements to have servservice.exe in the same directory where TJWS is. Here is an example of an installation command:
servservice.exe -install "C:\Project Files\tjws" "C:\Project Files\gnujsp\lib\jspengine.jar" TinyJavaWebServer TinyJavaWebServer "C:\Project Files\tjws\servservice\Debug\servservice.exe" -Dtjws.wardeploy.warname-as-context=yes

Running it as a service on all Linux platforms

A Linux service script example tjwserv is provided in bin directory of the distribution archive. It has to be edited to reflect particular TJWS installation directory structure. The script has to be stored in /etc/init.d/ location. Use command update-rc.d tjwserv defaults to enable the service. You can control it using command service tjwserv <start|stop|restart>. Look in Raspberry PI setup section for enabling service on Arch Linux and other systems using systemd.

Embeddable application

Recently, a new type of application appeared on the market. After starting an application is launching a browser which represents its UI. This approach has many advantages and becomes more popular and wider used. The Miniature Java Web Server is a right tool for creation such kind of application. Download and double click JAR in Explorer or launch it from a terminal typing java -jar finesearch.jar, then point browser to http://localhost:8080/finesearch and enjoy the web interfaced application. Starting from version 1.21 TJWS includes a launcher of a .war packaged application from command line or a start script. The feature is very similar to used by Winstone.  Use:
java -jar webapplauncher.jar war_file_name [optional standard TJWS CLI parameters]
for example:
java -jar webapplauncher.jar "C:\Project Files\finesearch\finesearch_app\finesearch.war"
Note if extra command line arguments are not specified, then TJWS will try to discover them from cmdparams located in a working directory.
Version 1.22 and above makes launching Web UI application even more simpler. Web application .war can be packaged inside of TJWS .jar file allowing one click launch. To package web application .war with TJWS use target 'embedded' of 7Bee build tool and answer on few simple questions. For example:

C:\Project Files\tjws>bee embedded
Launcher's been built.
Enter command line arguments for app [-nohup -p 80]? -p 80
Enter application .war file location? C:\Project Files\finesearch\finesearch_app\finesearch.war
As result finesearch.jar is created in lib directory which is launchable using java -jar finesearch.jar
When JDK 6 is used you can get it running in system tray, use javaw for JAR launching.

System tray menu will contain an item for going directly to an application with web UI (since 1.24).
Use 7Bee target asembedded, when web application needs container provided JNDI and data sources. (since 1.50).
J2EE without application server

TJWS gives a good possibility to create enterprise class J2EE applications without an expensive and heavy weight application server. WebBee library will take care of SOA registry, MVC servlet framework with template based presentation layer, data persistence and much more. Check out a demo of a real application based on this approach. New generation of web application building blocks WebBee with annotated JDO and forms makes creation of rich application possible even for Android platform.

Embedded usage

TJWS can be successfully used as a part of another Java application. Acme.Serve.Serve can be instantiated as a Java bean with following setting parameters in its public member arguments and log print stream in its public member logStream. Use method aaddServlet(..) for adding servlets. Note that server will do nothing without servlets. Default file (HTTPD) and cgi servlets can be added calling addDefaultServlets(...). Server can be started calling method serve() and stopped calling notifyStop(). Note that serve() doesn't exit until a server runs, so stopping should be called from a separate thread, or serve() is ran in a separate thread.
A minimal application with embedded TJWS looks like:

public class Test {
	public static void main(String... args) {
		class MyServ extends Acme.Serve.Serve {
			// Overriding method for public access
                        public void setMappingTable(PathTreeDictionary mappingtable) { 
                              super.setMappingTable(mappingtable);
                        }
                        // add the method below when .war deployment is needed
                        public void addWarDeployer(String deployerFactory, String throttles) {
                              super.addWarDeployer(deployerFactory, throttles);
                        }
                };

		final MyServ srv = new MyServ();
 		// setting aliases, for an optional file servlet
                Acme.Serve.Serve.PathTreeDictionary aliases = new Acme.Serve.Serve.PathTreeDictionary();
                aliases.put("/*", new java.io.File("C:\\temp"));
		//  note cast name will depend on the class name, since it is anonymous class
                srv.setMappingTable(aliases);
		// setting properties for the server, and exchangeable Acceptors
		java.util.Properties properties = new java.util.Properties();
		properties.put("port", 80);
		properties.setProperty(Acme.Serve.Serve.ARG_NOHUP, "nohup");
		srv.arguments = properties;
		srv.addDefaultServlets(null); // optional file servlet
		srv.addServlet("/myservlet", new MyServlet()); // optional
		// the pattern above is exact match, use /myservlet/* for mapping any path startting with /myservlet (Since 1.93)
		Runtime.getRuntime().addShutdownHook(new Thread(new Runnable() {
			public void run() {
				srv.notifyStop();
				srv.destroyAllServlets();
			}
		}));
		srv.serve();
	}
}
 

The File servlet without aliases definitions maps your file system directly to a web accessable one, so setting up aliases is recommended.

J2EE servlet deployment is possible in an embedded usage. You need to assure that JDK 1.5 or above is used and war.jar is in a class path of an application.
Add a line as below:

      ((Test$1)srv).addWarDeployer(null, null);

The default war deployer will look in directory "user.dir/webapss" and deploy all wars there. You can redefine a deploy repository by setting

System.setProperty("tjws.webappdir", newDeployDirectory);

prior of calling addWarDeployer()

TJWS works perfectly on Android platform as embedded server enriching your Android application by a capability to receive uploads, check Kamerton application using TJWS for uploading music to Android device.

Mobile and appliance usage

TJWS provenly runs on wide specter mobile devices as Sharp Zaurus, Windows CE/Mobile, all Android, and Blackberry platforms. Java gives great portability of TJWS between different mobile devices.
Run it on Zaurus

Zaurus version is currently retired, since Zaurus has been replaced by Android.

Run it on Windows Mobile

Since Microsoft dropped Java and allow to install only products from mobile store on Windows surface tablets, here is no good possibility to run TJWS. So here is a plan to create Objective C and C++ library supporting core functionality of TJWS to be able to run it on iOS and Windows Mobile platforms.

Run it on Raspberry Pi

TJWS is naturally created for running web applications on Raspbery Pi. It will outperform most of other application servers on the platfrom including Jetty, JBOSS and Tomcat. Start time for it is just around 11 seconds, when you can observe times close to 1 minute with other application servers. Here are few notes helping to start using it:

If you plan to use Raspberry Pi mostly as server operating 24/7, then I recommend to install Arch Linux especially if your network connection is wireless. Since Arch Linux specific is less covered on net, I prepared my own guide which can help you start using TJWS faster.
Raspberry Pi development is certainly addicting, so if you are on same boat feel free to drop me a note.

Run it on Android devices

TJWS provides Android packaging for run the server on Android devices. This packaging got name Atjeews and provided as a separate download. Atjeews is also available at Google Play under same name. Atjeews is just a small server launcher Java program. The server runs FileServlet against Android root directory "/". You can deploy any web application on it just loading war files. Atjeews can be mapped to any port and supports SSL.

 
Since Android devices use Dalvik JVM, you need to convert all content of WEB-INF/lib and class directories of your web application to DEX format supported by Dalvik. Use DX tool for that.
The following command will work:
dx --dex --output=<original_jar_file> <dalvik(dex) jar>
Please note that your web application has to be JDK 1.5 compatible since Android OS below version 3.0 supports only Java 1.5. 7Bee script (7Bee version of 1.1.1 or above required) is availble for converting war files to format supported by Android platfrom. The script is highly recommended to use when your web application includes JSP pages, since the script take care of precompilation of JSP files and DEX converting. Atjeews is bundled with Jasper to run JSP. See more about Atjeews here. Since 1.83
Blackberry BAR Atjeews packaging added to version 1.95. It supposes also appearing in RIM AppWorld as a free application.

Run it on iPhone?

There are several options to run Java applications on iPhone and iPad. You will need to jail break your iPhone though. Since Steeve isn't with Apple anymore, there is a good chance for porting Davlik to iOS platfrom. I heard that iOS 8.0 (current is 7.0) will have Java included

Use TJWS as proxied

TJWS can be used with proxy servers. Definition tjws.proxy.ssl can be specified to correctly determinate remote host and access protocol.

To use Apache as a proxy server you can:

  1. make sure that mod_proxy enabled in httpd.conf
  2. add below directives in httpd.conf
       ProxyRequests On
       ProxyVia On
       ProxyPass /context_path/ http://tjws_host:<TJWS port>/web_app_context/
       ProxyPassReverse /context_path/ http://tjws_host:<TJWS port>/web_app_context/
    # for pushing authentication
       RewriteEngine on
       RewriteBase /
    
       RewriteCond %{REMOTE_USER} !=""
       RewriteRule .* - [E=E_USER:%{REMOTE_USER}]
    
       RequestHeader set my_new_header %{E_USER}e
    

Another example of Apache configuration to use proxied TJWS as virtual host:
<VirtualHost *:*>
ProxyPreserveHost On
ProxyPass / http://localhost:8080/
ProxyPassReverse / http://localhost:8080/
ServerName www.tjws.com
</VirtualHost>
To use Nginx as a proxy server :
    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  localhost;
...
        location / {
            proxy_pass        http://localhost:8080;
            proxy_set_header  x-Forwarded-for  $remote_addr;
            proxy_set_header  X-Forwarded-Host $host;
        }
...        
Please note that Nginx doesn't support keep alive for proxy requests yet, so you can observe some performance degradation.

Download

Please download (version 1.106)

Android version of the server with couple of web applications added in webroot/android directory of the distribution. The version is also available for separate download so you can install it directly to your phone or tablet. I am preparing a video helping to use Atjeews on your mobile devices.

Sources of TJWS are available on GitHub

Note: Base TJWS is Java 2 (JDK 1.2) compatible, SSL module requires extra classes introduced in JDK 1.3-1.4. Base TJWS runs also on servlet specification 2.3, when the rest of server is 3.0 version compatible. It makes building of TJWS a bit tricky. Some methods originally introduced in TJWS are conflicting with JSR 315, so the author is looking how to eliminate this conflict with a minimal impact of backward compatibility. J2EE war deployment requires Java 5 (JDK 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, or 1.8). If you would like to make own build, then you will need to download 7Bee Java based build tool. The env.xml assumes target 1.4 for TJWS and 1.7 for the rest. It may need being edited to provide SDK paths and targets. Modify variable 'j2ee target version' in env.xml to 1.5 to avoid using System tray feature of JDK 1.6 and up. Specify env.xml variable 'android' as yes to compile the server to run on Android devices (since 1.83). App servers features are not supported for Android though. Since a build tool is a matter of personal taste, you can use any other favorite build tools.

Attention POSIX systems users, the distributive archive has access attribute not set, so execute chmod -R +rwx WebServer after unpackaging WebServer-nnn.zip

Zaurus version get here and .ipk version (use kill to stop)

Last changes history

Tested web applications

I use TJWS primary for my business, however I verified functionality of some popular web applications. Here are just few of them:

  1. Apache Slide (WebDav) and also WebDav servlet from GitHub
  2. jCVSWeb/jCVSServlet 1.41/1.01 (CVS web front-end)
  3. Pebble 2.2 (Blogger solution)
  4. DaveNPort 0.9.10 (Samba web front-end)
  5. Apache Axis2 1.0
  6. JASIG - single sign on service
  7. SimpleCaptcha
  8. Quercus™ (PHP engine)
  9. Apache Myfaces
  10. MetricStream EGRCP
  11. Google Web Toolkit (GWT)
  12. Stripes (JSP framework)
  13. Red5 (Streaming media server)
  14. OIOSAML.java SAML SSO servlet filter
  15. IBM's WeatherServer (Comet)
  16. JEExplorer from Denmark
  17. VAADIN another flavor of popular GWT
  18. Javamelody enterprise application monitoring and profiling tool
  19. Music Barrel - a music jukebox for Raspberry PI and PC

Build Tool

TJWS is proudly built using most sophisticated Java build tool 7Bee. The tool is available in sources at GitHub. Another build tools can be used as well, although I support 7Bee only. There is also no way to convert .war files to be deployed on Android, than using 7Bee. The following values needed to be provided in env.xml to build TJWS:

  1. SERVLET_LIB - fully qualified path to servlet.jar or other lib/directory containing JSS 2.3 classes
  2. SERVLET_LIB_30 - fully qualified path to servlet.jar or other lib/directory containing JSS 3.0 classes
  3. SERVLET_SRC - fully qualified path to sources of JSS classes, used only for packaging text resources in launcher packaging and can be omitted, unless launcher has to be built
  4. SERVLET_BUILD - fully qualified path to binaries of classes of JSS, used only for packaging JSS in launcher packaging and can be omitted, unless launcher with JSP has to be built
  5. JSP_LIB - fully qualified path to jsp.jar or other lib/directory containing JSP API classes
Note: environment variables for versions prior 1.28 are slightly different.

JVMs

TJWS was tested with most popular JVMs under Windows, Linux, Mac OS, and Solaris platforms and also on mobile platforms as Sharp Zaurus, Android, and Windows Mobile. Oracle, IBM J9, JRocket, Open JDK, Dalvik, and GNU VMs are capable to run TJWS.

Copyrights

The Miniature Java Web Server carries all copyrights of the original author as stated in the license you can find in any source file.

License

The Tiny Java Web Server inherited BSD like license from the original code, check any source file for details.

Support

I provide support of the server on voluntary basis. Feel free to send bug report on enhancement request. I also provide consulting service related to creation of web 2.0 J2EE scalable applications. See an example ResumeFair

Discussion forum

Feel free also to share your concerns, questions, and discoveries in the Discussion forum.

Extra Bonus

Version of 1.07 and later includes some useful web applications packaged as .war files and deployed at first server run. To enjoy the applications just follow a link on a start page. If you do not want to have these applications deployed, just remove corresponding .war files from webapps directory before first server run.

Help wanted

I'm looking for developers to finish work on pending web.xml, fragment.xml, and common.xml instructions. Another plan is adding SOAP/RPC support for easy SOA. SSI servlet is also waiting to be developed. There are tons opportunities to develop Android web applications.

Check also...

MediaChest Comprehensive tools to handle all media files as digital photos and  music

xBox - Bean box supporting XML serialization (do not confuse with proposed later java.beans.Encoder)

jAddressBook is an address book with a float XML format of addresses and another profile information, web 2 UI.

Music Barrel Conver any computer including Raspberry Pi to a music jukebox remote controllable from your phone or tablet.

Remote file management - the tool every IT professional or advanced user must have, web interfaced file manager with many useful functions.

Contact

Bugs, questions, and enhancement requests you can send to Dmitriy Rogatkin.Happy web servicing!